In-vitro fertilization is gaining increased popularity among couples who are seeking infertility treatment. ICSI, expanded as Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection is a specialized form of IVF, which is used to treat extreme cases of male infertility problems. As said, this is a specialized method in which a healthy single sperm is injected into a mature egg. Sperm DNA fragmentation test is used to identify a healthy sperm which is used in this treatment of artificial insemination and fertilization.
Here is the breakdown of the complete process of ICSI treatment or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection treatment. The first and foremost step is an ovarian simulation in which ovaries are artificially stimulated using electric pulses or magnetic pulses to secrete egg cells. This process is done under a controlled medium where the quality of the egg follicles are determine based on the need and necessity. Then an HCG injection is given to secrete the eggs. Once the egg cells are secreted, these are retrieved using a triggered ultrasound.
Secondly, sperms are evaluated by a semen analysis. The primary objective of this is to find out the mobility value of the sperms. Once this is determined, then a highly mobile sperm is selected. Once the sperm evaluation is over, the third step is egg cell evaluation. Just like how a highly mobile sperm is chosen, in this process, a mature egg is chosen for the fertilization. The embryologist determines the egg cells from the extracted ones. Now, ICSI plays its role. We have the egg cell and the sperm. Insemination is done using the ICSI process. Once the insemination is done, artificial insemination is done by placing the inseminated piece in an incubator. This is done 12-18 hours after insemination. Once in the incubator, the growth of the cells are closely monitored. Growth takes place in 3-5 days within the incubator which provides essential conditions for fertility to happen.
Embryo transfer is a complete process by itself where the fertile embryo is transferred into the uterus through the cervix. There will be multiple embryos. These will be stored and only one embryo is used one time. This is called the first cycle of IVF using ICSI. After two weeks of embryo transfer, a pregnancy test is taken. If the test is positive, then the couple is asked to follow the general prenatal procedure. If the result is negative, 2nd cycle of IVF starts. There are 6 cycles in a typical IVF cycle. The chances of pregnancy increase on each select cycle.